​Pharmacotherapy, psychology homework help

Humanities

Pharmacotherapy

Must be 450+ words…Original content only. I have attached the textbook. Chapter 18 is for this assignment. The Agonist Therapies: One Person’s Cure Is Another’s Addiction is below and also in the attached e-book. The table is also below but it is also in the attached textbook in Ch. 18. No title page is needed.

In treating addiction to alcohol, opioids, cannabis, and cocaine, doctors might prescribe a drug to the client to help with the detoxification process. These prescribed drugs might be given a short or long time depending on individual need. In some cases, these drugs block receptors so that if the client uses the drug, no feeling of “high” would occur (e.g. methadone blocks heroin). In other cases, the client takes the prescribed drug knowing that he/she will become ill if also taking the illicit drug or alcohol. Occasionally, the drugs used in pharmacotherapy can be addictive (e.g. methadone).

To respond to the discussion questions, please complete the assigned reading including Agonist Therapies: One Person’s Cure Is Another’s Addiction p. 420 of your text.

  1. Do you think that agonist therapies should be continued despite the danger that some people become addicted to the agonist drug? Support your position using the text or other academic resource.
  2. Choose one of the treatment drugs listed in the 18.2 Table (in text, p. 417) and research its use in treatment for alcohol, nicotine, opioid, cocaine, or cannabis treatment. Explain its action in the brain (e.g. does it block receptors).
  3. Would you recommend the drug that you researched for use in pharmacotherapy? Support your opinion with information from your research.


Taking Sides

Agonist Therapies: One Person’s Cure Is Another’s Addiction

In the mid-1960s, Drs. Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander reported that methadone, a long-acting opioid agonist, was an effective treatment for reducing heroin dependence. Subsequently, a plethora of studies have shown that methadone treatment also reduces high-risk injecting and sexual behaviors, increases HIV treatment retention, and improves antiretroviral medication adherence. The idea is that maintaining patients on a medication pharmacologically similar to the abused drug (e.g., heroin) will, in turn, decrease the desire for the illicit substance. An added benefit is that methadone and most other maintenance medications are administered via the oral route, which is safer and produces diminished psychoactive effects. Thus, although methadone is not a cure and must be taken by patients indefinitely, arguably it is the most effective substance-abuse treatment medication. The rationale for nicotine replacement therapies in treating nicotine dependence is based in large part on the success of methadone maintenance treatment.

Given the fact that methadone maintenance has been largely successful in treating heroin dependence, it seems peculiar that a similar strategy has not been implemented to address cocaine dependence or methamphetamine dependence. In opioid and nicotine dependence, the neurobiological mechanisms mediating reinforcement are fairly well understood, making the development of treatment medications relatively straightforward. In contrast, the neuronal mechanisms of action for cocaine and amphetamines are more complicated, rendering the development of effective pharmacotherapies more difficult. As such, there is currently no “methadone for cocaine” per se. However, the knowledge that methamphetamine and other amphetamines produce considerable overlapping effects has led to investigations of oral d-amphetamine for treating methamphetamine dependence. Initial results have been encouraging, but the verdict is still out on this approach.

Despite the successes described above, agonist treatments have been contentious since their inception, and they remain a source of controversy today. Some argue, for example, that methadone entraps patients in lifelong drug dependence such that they are merely trading one “addiction” for another. Indeed, patients receiving methadone are required to take daily doses of the drug. Interestingly, this argument is rarely mentioned when discussing the use of insulin for diabetes or antihypertensive medications for high blood pressure. Patient afflicted with these conditions are required to take their medication on a daily basis but are not considered “addicted” to these medications. Similarly, many individuals currently take medications daily to treat psychiatric disorders, including depression and ADHD, but they are not viewed as disparagingly as methadone-maintained individuals.

Considering the potential benefits and concerns associated with agonist treatments, do you think greater emphasis should be placed on expanding this strategy for treating substance dependence? Or should agonist therapies be curtailed to prevent creating another type of drug dependence?

Table 18.2

Medications Used to Treat Substance Abuse and Dependence

Substance

Treatment Medication

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Alcohol

Benzodiazepines

Increase the activity of GABA

Disulfiram

Inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase

Naltrexone

Opioid receptor antagonist

Acamprosate

Normalizes basal GABA concentrations; blocks alcohol-withdrawal-induced glutamate increases

Nicotine

Nicotine replacements

Full agonists at nicotine receptors

Bupropion

Inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine; acetylcholine receptors antagonist

Varenicline

Partial nicotine-receptor agonist

Opioids

Methadone

Full agonist at opioid receptors

Buprenorphine

Partial agonist at opioid receptors

Naltrexone

Opioid receptor antagonist

Cocaine

Modafinil *

Increases the activity of dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate; decreases the release of GABA

Cannabis

Dronabinol *

Full agonist at cannabinoid receptors

* Not FDA approved to treat substance abuse or dependence.

#write essay #research paper #blog writing #article writing #academic writer #reflective paper #essay pro #types of essays #write my essay #reflective essay #paper writer #essay writing service #essay writer free #essay helper #write my paper #assignment writer #write my essay for me #write an essay for me #uk essay #thesis writer #dissertation writing services #writing a research paper #academic essay #dissertation help #easy essay #do my essay #paper writing service #buy essay #essay writing help #essay service #dissertation writing #online essay writer #write my paper for me #types of essay writing #essay writing website #write my essay for free #reflective report #type my essay #thesis writing services #write paper for me #research paper writing service #essay paper #professional essay writers #write my essay online #essay help online #write my research paper #dissertation writing help #websites that write papers for you for free #write my essay for me cheap #pay someone to write my paper #pay someone to write my research paper #Essaywriting #Academicwriting #Assignmenthelp #Nursingassignment #Nursinghomework #Psychologyassignment #Physicsassignment #Philosophyassignment #Religionassignment #History #Writing #writingtips #Students #universityassignment #onlinewriting #savvyessaywriters #onlineprowriters #assignmentcollection #excelsiorwriters #writinghub #study #exclusivewritings #myassignmentgeek #expertwriters #art #transcription #grammer #college #highschool #StudentsHelpingStudents #studentshirt #StudentShoe #StudentShoes #studentshoponline #studentshopping #studentshouse #StudentShoutout #studentshowcase2017 #StudentsHub #studentsieuczy #StudentsIn #studentsinberlin #studentsinbusiness #StudentsInDubai #studentsininternational