Answer all 4 questions with references included.
1. “A utility analysis may be broadly defined as a family of techniques that entail a cost-benefit analysis designed to yield information relevant to a decision about the usefulness and/or practical value of a tool of assessment” (Cohen, et al., 2013, p. 218). Indeed, utility analysis may be important to save money and not spend money on things not needed. Therefore, I agree that consideration should be given to cost in utility analysis, meaning that the disadvantages, losses, or expenses in the financial and non-financial senses must be assessed.
Moreover, cost cutting could have its disadvantages when it effects noneconomic concerns, as in medical procedures if shortened could lose their effectiveness in findings for diagnosis (Cohen, Swerdlik, & Sturman, 2013). Certainly, and to that point, if the research efforts for a cure for a deadly disease was extremely costly, when in reality, it may save only two or three lives, what are your thoughts on spending a significantly large sum of money on something that may save the lives of only two or three people?
2, Cohen, et al. (2013) defined a cut score as a (usually numerical) reference point derived as a result of a judgment and used to divide a set of data into two or more classifications, with some action to be taken or some inference to be made on the basis of these classifications” (p. 233). Moreover, there are pros and cons of using cut scores. Reasonably to that point, and according to Zieky and Perie (2006), “Even though the use of cut scores may lead to positive consequences, some people will perceive the use of cut scores to be unfair. It is important to explain the reasons for the use of cut scores to educators and to the public. People should understand why the tests are being given and why students are being classified into different proficiency levels” (p. 4).
What additional thoughts do you have on determining the usefulness of cut scores?
3. According to Cohen, et al. (2013), “Different approaches to test development and individual item analyses are necessary, depending upon whether the finished test is designed to be norm-referenced or criterion-referenced” (p. 243). Moreover, according to Cohen, et al. (2013), norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests are dissimilar in terms of how meaning may be attached to a test score. With norm-referenced test the meaning of a test score is obtained in relation to other test scores on the same test; whereas, with criterion-referenced test, meaning of a test score is determined in relation to if a particular criterion or standard was met.
What additional thoughts might you have on the distinctions that may exist between norm-referenced tests and criterion-referenced tests?
4. According to Cohen, et al. (2013), item format has much to do with how test items and test questions are planned, structured, formed, and arranged on a test. Variables such as the form, plan, structure, arrangement, and layout of individual test items are collectively referred to as item format. The selected-response format and the constructed-response format are two of such item formats. Specifically, according to Cohen, et al. (2013), “items presented in a selected-response format require testtakers to select a response from a set of alternative responses. Items presented in a constructed-response format require testtakers to supply or to create the correct answer, not merely to select it” (p. 252).
What are your thoughts on the similarities and differences that may exist between a selected-response format and a constructed-response format?